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Effect of Defocus
Effect of Cs
Effect of High Voltage
Envelope Functions
Point Resolution
Information Limit
Spatial Coherency

The passbands occur periodically with underfocus and, in fact, the first passband corresponds to the Scherzer defocus.

Higher order passbands can be useful to access higher spatial frequencies with less aberrations. The price we pay for this is that now we have zeros in CTF at lower spatial frequencies.

For a certain material it is possible to find an "aberration-free" defocus condition when all Bragg reflections will be within "transparent" passbands in the CTF out to very high spatial frequencies. However, any information which falls into the gaps in CTF will be lost! For instance, if there is a defect present, we will lose all information about the defect, since defects scatter between the Bragg peaks.


2nd passband


7th passband